在我们向金融机构(一般为银行)申请银行账户、银行卡、贷款的时候,银行都会向美国三大信用记录公司查询申请者的信用分数与信用报告。由于查询的方式不同,对我们的信用分数会造成不同的影响。这里的查询方式主要分为两种:Hard Pull(又叫做 Hard Inquiry)与 Soft Pull(又叫做 Soft Inquiry)。

一、Hard Pull

英文解释

Hard pull is a credit scoring term. It describes when a consumer has applied for a loan. The potential lender checks the consumer’s credit report, which creates a small negative impact on the consumer’s credit score. An occasional hard pull, or a quick burst of hard pulls, has little impact on credit scores; the credit scoring formulas recognize routine loan shopping. What hurts a credit score most are multiple hard pulls over a long period. A hard pull is also known as a “hard inquiry.”

从上面的英文解释可看出,当我们申请信用卡和贷款时,发卡机构或者贷款机构向信用记录机构查询我们信用记录的行为叫做hard pull。hard pull 会对我们的信用分数(credit score)造成一定的负面影响,你的分数会降低;申请一张信用卡一般会扣掉约5点信用分数(FICO分数)。

Hard Pull的记录会在我们的信用记录上保留2年。也就是任何看你信用记录的机构都会看到你近2年内的hard pull记录。由于hard pull是申请贷款和信用卡不可避免的步骤,我们需要尽量避免hard pull的次数来保持高信用分数。因此,不要短期内过于频密申请信用卡或贷款是减少hard pull的有效途径。此外,短期内出现过多的 Hard Pull 会让金融机构提高警觉,因为这通常意味两种情况:

  1. 你的财政状况很糟糕,急于到处找钱(贷款)。
  2. 你贷不够钱,或者被其它银行拒绝了,所以找完一家又找另一家借。

因为 hard pull 对于信用分数的影响会随着时间变化逐渐减小。根据经验的总结,大概半年以后hard pull对于信用分数的影响就会很小了。所以,一般申请信用卡的周期最好是半年以上。同样,如果申请信用卡被拒,一般最少等半年后再重新申请会更容易获批。

二、Soft Pull

英文解释

A soft inquiry, or soft pull, is a term used to refer to an inquiry into your credit history that does not adversely affect the credit score. Often, you are not even aware that there has been a soft inquiry on your credit report. For example, if you receive a solicitation in the mail offering you a credit card, the credit card company has most likely conducted a soft pull to see if you qualify. When mortgage lenders pre-approve you for a loan, they initially use a soft pull. Potential employers use it as a part of background checks, and your current credit card companies use soft inquiries to check up on you. Banks use them to verify that you are who you say you are when opening an account. If you check your own credit report, which you can do for free once a year, this is done with a soft pull. Most of the time, you do not even know when they occur, and they do not affect your credit report.

与 Hard Pull 相反,Soft Pull 对信用记录和信用分数不会产生任何影响。Soft Pull 一般发生在申请调高信用卡消费额度(Credit Limit),自己查询信用报告,以及信用卡公司(银行)做预批(Pre-Approve)的时候。大家收到的很多信用卡广告,都是通过 Soft Pull 来获得你的信用信息,然后来判断是否对你发出广告。

三、不确定的情形

但是,有些情况,比如租房、签订手机合约、开银行账户、租车、开通网络宽带等,一般情况属于Soft Pull,但少数情况下可能会产生Hard Pull。对于调高信用卡消费额度,有一些银行是soft pull,有一些是hard pull。

四、关于 Rate Shopping

英文解释:The act of reviewing interest rates from various lenders and on various loan or credit products. Rate shopping allows a consumer to understand the costs of available products and the differences between lenders.

意思是说,当你贷款的时候需要货比三家,看那家金融机构提供最优惠的利率或条件,然后联系多家金融机构(银行),他们都会调阅你的信用报告,每家金融机构的每次调阅都是一次 Hard Pull,但这并不代表你的信用风险增加许多倍,因为你只是贷款买一辆车,或买一间房子。但是,如果你在 Hard Pull 之后的30天内拿到贷款,这是正常的 Rate Shopping 行为,而且属于房贷、车贷或学生贷款,Rate Shopping 产生的的这些Hard Pull仅当作一个Hard Pull,不会大幅降低你的信用分数。

五、总结

一般来讲,如果属于 hard pull ,都需要你的授权,金融机构(或其它机构)才能调阅你的信用报告。当然,你也可以询问银行机构在要你提供SSN(社会安全号码)进行信用记录的查询时是hard pull还是soft pull,依此来保护自己的信用记录。如果在你不知情,或没有授权的情况下产生 hard pull,你可以联系信用局申诉(Dispute)撤销。

什么是 Hard Pull 与 Soft Pull?

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